Although there were precursors to the movement, the origins of modern Wicca can be traced to a retired British civil servant, Gerald Brosseau Gardner (1884–1964). Gardner spent most of his career in Asia, where he became familiar with various indigenous religious traditions. He also read widely in Western esoteric literature, including the writings of the British occultist Aleister Crowley. Upon returning to Britain in the 1930s, Gardner became involved in the British occult community and claimed to have discovered a group of witches operating near England’s New Forest in 1939. He later alleged that it was their teachings that provided the basis of Wicca, although historians disagree on whether the New Forest group ever existed. If it did, it likely formed earlier in the 1930s. Following the 1951 repeal of Britain’s archaic witchcraft laws, Gardner published Witchcraft Today (1954), founded his first coven of followers, and, with the assistance of high priestess Doreen Valiente (1922–99), developed what became known as Gardnerian Wicca.
Wicca; Alex Sanders
Wicca; Alex Sanders
Other occultists drew on Gardner’s writings and on other texts about witchcraft to establish their own Wiccan traditions during the 1950s and ’60s. All typically claimed to be practicing a pre-Christian witchcraft religion that had clandestinely survived for centuries, although these claims were dismissed by historians following greater research into early modern witchcraft during the 1960s and ’70s. Among the most prominent of these occultists was the Englishman Alexander Sanders (1926–88), who founded Alexandrian Wicca, and the California-based Victor Anderson (1917–2001) and Cora Anderson (1915–2008), who spearheaded the Feri tradition. By the 1960s the word Wicca had emerged as a general term for this new religion, although there was some internal contestation as to its specific applicability.
Wicca’s rapid spread through the United States during the 1960s and ’70s was part of the broader countercultural zeitgeist, and many of those Americans joining Wicca were also influenced by the new social movements of the period. Informed by second-wave feminism, Dianic Wicca was formed in 1971 by Hungarian émigré Zsuzsanna Budapest (born 1940) as a women’s tradition placing central focus on the goddess. Drawing on the gay rights movement, the Minoan Brotherhood was established in 1977 by Eddie Buczynski (1947–89) as a Wiccan tradition for gay and bisexual men. Growing environmentalist sentiment also had an impact on Wicca, which by the 1970s was increasingly presenting itself as a “nature religion.” Radical left-wing politics came to the fore in the work of Starhawk (born 1951), an American practitioner who helped establish the Reclaiming tradition in San Francisco and wrote an influential book, The Spiral Dance (1979). Although many of Wicca’s early exponents espoused conservative and right-wing views, by the close of the 20th century the Wiccan community had come to be numerically dominated by people with progressive and left-leaning opinions.
As well as influencing other modern Pagan groups, such as the Church of All Worlds and modern Druidry, Wiccans played a prominent role in establishing organizations to defend Neo-Pagan civil rights, such as the U.K.-based Pagan Federation and the U.S.-based Covenant of the Goddess. These groups repeatedly challenged the erroneous perception that Wiccans were Satanists—a notion, promoted by certain Evangelical Christians, that proved particularly dangerous amid the Satanic ritual abuse panic of the 1980s and early ’90s.
During the religion’s first two decades, most people who joined Wicca did so through initiation into a preexisting coven. From the 1970s, however, a growing number of books were published that taught readers how to initiate themselves into Wicca, resulting in rapid growth in the number of solitary practitioners. Wicca’s growing public visibility led the creators of such American films and television shows as The Craft (1996), Buffy the Vampire Slayer (1997–2003), and Charmed (1998–2006) to draw on Wiccan terminology in depicting fictional witches. The popularity of these media portrayals fueled a teenage Wiccan subculture during the 1990s and 2000s, and a second surge in teenage interest arose in the 2010s, informed largely by social media. These tendencies were met with a mixed reception from more-established practitioners, some of whom felt that the popularizations trivialized the religion. Reacting to the changing image of Wicca, from the early 1990s onward.
Beliefs and practices
Wicca is a broad movement with much internal diversity in its beliefs and practices, in large part because of the absence of any single leader or centralized governing body. Within Wiccan groups it is often considered more important for all members to follow the same ritual procedures than to believe the same thing.
Wiccans typically identify as Pagans and are heavily inspired by the extinct pre-Christian religions of Europe, North Africa, and western Asia and, to a lesser extent, by living non-Abrahamic religions such as Hinduism. They usually call themselves witches, although, in contrast to the traditional idea that witches are inherently bad, Wiccans give the term positive connotations. In the religion’s early decades, most Wiccans adhered to the idea of the Egyptologist-cum-folklorist Margaret Murray (1863–1963) that people persecuted as witches during the early modern period followed a pre-Christian religion. While many Wiccans no longer believe this discredited notion, they often feel a kinship with those historically accused of witchcraft.
Drawing on terminology associated with witchcraft, Wiccan groups call themselves covens. These are often led by a high priest and a high priestess and can have as few as three members, although 13 is repeatedly cited as the ideal number. Coven membership is typically granted through an initiation ritual. In several older traditions, such as Gardnerian and Alexandrian Wicca, initiates can advance through two additional degrees, reflecting the influence of Freemasonry’s three-degree system. Being initiated into a tradition connects the newcomer to that tradition’s lineage—something that certain Wiccans place great importance on. Admittance to a coven is typically at the discretion of its members: some covens are eager to recruit, and others are closed to new initiates. Most traditions welcome both men and women, although a few operate on a single-sex basis. Throughout Wicca’s history, there have been covens that excluded gay or transgender people; such exclusions are now less common, and the religion has a notably high proportion of LGBTQ adherents. Despite the importance of the coven structure in Wiccan history, most Wiccans today operate as solitary practitioners.
Wiccan rituals typically take place in a practitioner’s home, often at night, rather than in purpose-built structures. They take place in a circle, at one end of which is an altar. Common ritual tools include a censer of incense, a chalice, a pentacle, a wand, and a knife known as an athame, which is not used to draw blood. Some Wiccans perform rituals naked (or “skyclad”), while others wear robes or everyday clothing. Rituals are typically described as magical, designed to focus the willpower of the assembled Wiccans in the belief that doing so will bring about a desired change in the physical universe, commonly for healing or to assist those in need. Most Wiccans accept the so-called Wiccan Rede, an ethical code that states, “If it harm none, do what you will,” and they reject cursing as unethical. After a coven ritual is completed, a meal will often be shared.
Theological views vary among Wiccans. Gardner presented a theology devoted to a mother goddess and a horned god, claiming both to be deities created by an unknowable deistic divinity. Many subsequent Wiccan groups have had different theologies—for instance, promoting goddess monotheism, pantheism, or polytheistic perspectives embracing deities from many world mythologies. There is also divergence among Wiccans as to whether the deities literally exist or are instead symbolic or archetypal figures. Despite this variation, the tendency to draw deity names and images from pre-Christian Europe is a recurring feature, as are rituals to invoke a deity to enter and possess a coven member, often termed “drawing down the moon.” Afterlife beliefs similarly vary; many Wiccans believe in reincarnation or in an afterlife realm called the Summerland.
Reflecting many Wiccans’ self-perception as followers of a nature religion, Wicca typically incorporates eight seasonally based festivals into its calendar, collectively known as the Wheel of the Year. These festivals, called sabbats, are based largely on traditional celebrations drawn from different periods of British and Irish history: the winter solstice, or Yule (December 21 or 22); Imbolc (February 1 or 2); the vernal equinox, or Ostara (March 19 or 20); Beltane (April 30 or May 1); the summer solstice, or Litha (June 20 or 21); Lughnasadh (August 1); the autumnal equinox, or Mabon (September 22 or 23); and Samhain (October 31). In the Southern Hemisphere, many Wiccans switch these dates to ensure that the sabbats fit more appropriately with their local seasonal cycle.